Quantum Computing explained for beginners

Basics of computing  

The language of nature is mathematics. As humans, we tend to use 0 to 9 as the basic numbers to create higher values. Researchers have found that this decimal number system is made because of the count of fingers in early times. But computers do not understand this scenario as they work using electricity and transistors. So, computers can basically understand the fact that the current is passing or not through the transistors. This is the reason for machine language which has 0 and 1.  

As explained above, there can be one scenario which is 1 or 0 at a time. This is called a bit. A bit can be 1 or 0 at a time. This is driven through a physical theorem which states that any physical component can only be at a form (0 or 1) at a specific time. In simple words, any physical item can be in somewhere at a time or it cannot be there. There is no middle option on this. As a real-life example, a person can hold a pen either from his left or right hand. Once the person is holding it through the left hand, the pen is not there in his right hand and once he changes the holding hand it is not there in the other hand. So, there is no middle option for the pen other than being in one of the hands at a specific time. This is the same scenario that happens in the computer transistors there can be current in the transistor or not. This helps to build the 0 and 1 to process stuff in the computer.  

Quantum computing basics 

Quantum computers are not based on the theorem of day-to-day computers and supercomputers. They use the power of subatomic particles other than transistors to run operations. This is faster millions of times than the existing computers. So, the subatomic particles can be in many places at a specific time totally differing from the basic computing methodologies. These subatomic particles can be there in many places at the same time. To understand this properly, let’s have a look at the basic quantum theorems that are the foundation of this new computing methodology.  

Quantum theory 

 There are three basic principles in quantum. These will help us understand the quantum computer basics. These laws are not only based on quantum computing, but they are general for all quantum-based inventions.  

  • SUPERPOSITION Principle 

This principle indicates that there is a chance for yes and no (1 or 0) at the same time. This means a quantum object can be in two states at the same time.   

  • UNCERTAINTY Principle 

This principle indicates that the atomic particles change their location and shape within seconds. Because of this, no one can certainly state the location and the shape of particles. 

  • Entanglement Principle 

The subatomic particles have the ability to get into a relationship with other subatomic particles near them. Once they get into the relationship, they can share information and characteristics with subatomic particles. If these particles are divided after the entanglement (relationship) and put into two sides of the earth, they can even share information beyond the speed of the light. 

 

How does quantum theorem work in quantum computers? 

In traditional computers, a bit can have only one state which is 0 or 1. But in quantum computers, a bit can be in a middle state of the above two states which is neither 1 nor 0. This is called quantum superposition. A bit that has two positions which are 1 and 0 is called qubits (These 1 and 0 scenarios are not about current flow in quantum computers as they do not need electricity to function). Because of this superposition in quantum, the amount of processing is unlimited in quantum computers.  

Traditional processor bits are created through silicon transistors. But to create a qubit, there has to be a subatomic particle. The quantum computers in labs are using phosphorus outer electrons as the qubit. If the spin of the electron is up, then it is known as 1 whilst 0 is known to be down of the electron spin. Special feature of this qubit is that when it is not monitored, the spin can be in the two-position (spin up and down) at the same time (it means 0 and 1 at the same time). 

To make this clearer, when a coin is spined, it can end up in head or tail. But there was a time when it was spinning, it had the two values. So after checking the coin it will show us only 1 result which will be head or tail. Qubits also always in the spinning position like that coin with two values at the same time. But when checked or monitored, it will only show one result. This is because even though the qubit can store two values at the same time, it does not have the ability to represent two values at the same time.  

The quantum computers are still in research level and those are not yet developed in large numbers. Big tech companies like google, IBM , Nasa is having this quantum computer, and google and NASA seem to be using it. There are many reasons that quantum computers are not yet the revolution of computers because they need a whole lot of resources and maintenance. Check yourwebsite.com for updates on the next part of this article